Studies on Consumer Products and Hygiene Practices
Characterization of Commercially Available Vaginal Lubricants: A Safety Perspective
Ana Raquel Cunha, Rita M. Machado, Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira, et al. Pharmaceutics (2012)
Twelve vaginal lubricants commercially available in Europe and/or North America were found to have substantial cytotoxicity compared with a placebo gel made with hydroxyethylcellulose.
Effects of Feminine Hygiene Products on the Vaginal Mucosal Biome
Bisiayo Fashemi, Mary L. Delaney M.A., Andrew B. Onderdonk & Raina N. Fichorova. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease (2013)
A vaginal moisturizer, douche, and personal lubricant (compared with known toxic spermicidal ingredient Nonoxynol-9) showed negative effects on vaginal epithelial cells and (except for the douche) Lactobacillus crispatus.
Hyperosmolar Sexual Lubricant Causes Epithelial Damage in the Distal Colon: Potential Implication for HIV Transmission
Edward J. Fuchs, Linda A. Lee, Michael S. Torbenson, et al. The Journal of Infectious Diseases (2007)
Rectally applied hyperosmolar gels induce greater epithelial denudation and luminal secretion than iso-osmolar gels.
Intravaginal Practices, Vaginal Flora Disturbances, and Acquisition of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Zimbabwean Women
J. H. H. M. van de Wijgert, P. R. Mason, L. Gwanzura, M. T. Mbizvo, Z. M. Chirenje,V. Iliff, S. Shiboski, and N. S. Padian. The Journal of Infectious Diseases (2000)
Certain traditional vaginal hygiene practices were associated with dysbiosis; some specific vaginal flora disturbances were associated with increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections and/or HIV.
Is Wetter Better? An Evaluation of Over-the-Counter Personal Lubricants for Safety and Anti-HIV-1 Activity
Charlene S. Dezzutti, Elizabeth R. Brown, Bernard Moncla, et al. PLOS One (2012)
Hyperosmolar lubricants show significant cytotoxicity to vaginal epithelial cells, while iso-osmotic lubricants are not cytotoxic.
Women's Perceptions About Lubricant Use and Vaginal Wetness During Sexual Activities
Kristen N. Jozkowski PhD, Debby Herbenick PhD, MPH, Vanessa Schick PhD, et al. Journal of Sexual Medicine (2012)
This survey-based study of American women showed that respondents generally have positive perceptions about lubricants, especially above the age of 30, and that they prefer sex to feel more wet than dry.