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Studies on Vulvodynia, Dyspareunia, and Other Pelvic Pain

Recent advances in understanding provoked vestibulodynia

Ahinoam Lev-Sagie and Steven S Witkin. F1000 Research (2016)

This review summarizes the role of inflammation, vulvovaginal infections, mucosal nerve fiber proliferation, hormonal associations, central pain mechanisms, pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, and genetic factors on provoked localized vulvodynia.

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Vulvodynia: The Role of Inflammation in the Etiology of Localized Provoked Pain of the Vulvar Vestibule (Vestibulodynia).

Alin L Akopians and Andrea J Rapkin. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine (2015)

This review summarizes the role of immune system activation in vestibulodynia, including neural proliferation and sensitization, and the role of the microbiome.

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The Vulvodynia Guideline.

Hope K. Haefner, Michael E. Collins, Gordon D. Davis, Libby Edwards, David C. Foster, Elizabeth (Dee) Heaton Hartmann, Raymond H. Kaufman, Peter J. Lynch, Lynette J. Margesson, Micheline Moyal-Barracco, Claudia K. Piper, Barbara D. Reed, Elizabeth G. Stewart, and Edward J. Wilkinson. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease (2005)

A review of literature and expert opinion on treatment of vulvodynia.

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Women’s sexual pain and its management.

Willibrord Weijmar Schultz, Rosemary Basson, Yitzchak Binik, David Eschenbach, Ursula Wesselmann, Jacques Van Lankveld. Journal of Sexual Medicine (2005)

A review clarifying the types of sexual pain, and how each can be managed.

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Vulvovestibular Syndrome and Vaginal Microbiome: A Simple Evaluation.

Maria Vadala, Christian Testa, Laura Coda, Stefania Angioletti, Rosanna Giuberti, Carmen Laurino, and Beniamino Palmieri. Journal of Clinical Medicine Research (2018)

This case-control study showed that women with vulvovestibular syndrome had lower lactobacilli and higher levels of fungi and other bacterial taxa (Klebsiella, Gardnerella, Streptococcus, and Mycoplasma) than women without VVS.

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